Sebelas Maret International Conferences, The 1st INCREDIBLE

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Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals in Gender Mainstreaming through the Gender and Development Perspective
Indah Susilowati & Izza Mafruhah

Building: Parallel Session 1
Room: E
Date: 2020-10-27 01:15 PM – 02:30 PM
Last modified: 2020-10-18

Abstract


Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) carry on the work begun by the Millennium Development Goals. One of the main SDGs highlights in the pillars of social development is gender equality. Gender inequality is usually measured through the Gender Inequality Index based on three main dimensions, namely 1) economy, indicated by the level of women workers participation, 2) social empowerment, shown by women’s educational attainment and political participation, and 3) reproductive health, demonstrated by death ratio and fertility rates. In general, this research aims to formulate a model for women's empowerment towards achieving the SDGs. Specifically, the objectives include 1) comparing gender inequality levels among ASEAN countries, 2) analyzing regulations on gender and development perspective in Indonesia, and 3) developing a model for Gender Equality-based Development in Indonesia.

This research used the mixed method, which combines quantitative and qualitative analyses. The first objective of the study was analyzed using panel data, namely analyzing gender inequality through a comparative study among ASEAN countries with dependent variable of women's labor force participation and independent variables of women's educational attainment, women's political participation, women's income per capita, women's fertility rates, women's death ratios, and women's life expectancy. The second objective was analyzed with Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) to compare conditions before and after the arrival of gender perspective regulations, while the third objective was analyzed with triangulation involving stakeholders obtained through Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interviews.

The results show that in the common effect model, all variables affected the participation of women in the workforce, but in the random effect model, life expectancy and maternal mortality did not affect the participation. The RIA analysis shows that the enactment of laws and regulations on gender mainstreaming has an impact on reducing gender inequality and increasing various indicators of gender mainstreaming especially in increasing the participation of women in the workforce.

Keywords: Gender Inequality Index, SDGs, ASEAN, gender mainstreaming,